The M35 family of trucks is a long-lived vehicle initially deployed by the United States Army , and subsequently utilized by many nations around the world. A truck in the 2 1/2 ton weight class, it was one of many vehicles in US military service to have been referred to as the "deuce and a half." The basic M35 cargo truck can carry 5000 pounds across country or 10,000 pounds over roads. Trucks in this weight class are considered medium duty by the military and Department of Transportation. The M35 series formed the basis for a wide range of specialized vehicles.
Design & Development
The M35 started out in 1949 as a design by the REO Motor Car Company. The first vehicle in the family, the M34, was quickly superseded in military usage by the M35, the major difference being the M35's 10-tire configuration versus the M34's 6-tire "super-singles" configuration.
An M35A2 cargo truck with winch is 112" tall, 96" wide and 277" long, and 13,030 pounds empty (13,530 pounds empty when equipped with the front mount winch, according to dashboard dataplates). The standard wheelbase cargo bed is 8'x12'. The trucks were available with a canvas soft top or a metal hard top. Metal hard-top configurations are most often found on vehicles that have been equipped with cold-weather gear, including additional insulation in the cab, as well as engine coolant or multifuel-fired cab personnel heaters.
The M35A2 is popularly powered by a LDT-465 engine made by either: Continental Motors, Hercules or White. It is an in-line 6 cylinder, turbocharged multifuel engine, 478 cubic inches, with 134 bhp (100 kW) and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m) of torque. This is coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission and divorced 2-speed transfer case (Either a sprague-operated transfer case (Rockwell 136-21) or air-operated selectable transfer case (Rockwell 136-27). Multifuel engines are designed to reliably operate on a wide variety of fuels, to include diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, heating oil or gasoline. Gasoline should only be used in an emergency because it does not properly lubricate the injector pump. While using gasoline, common practice calls for the addition of at least 1 quart of clean motor oil per 15 gallons of gasoline for proper pump lubrication where available.
Although the -A2 version is by far the most common, there were four different iterations: standard, A1, A2 or A3 iteration. These changes mainly had to do with the engine and transmission components. A1s replaced the original REO/Continental OA331 gasoline engines with LDS-427-2 Multifuel, and transmission was changed to add an overdrive gear. A2 trucks received the LDT-465 engine (with or without a turbocharger), keeping the transmission of the A1s. In 1994 the A3 variant was introduced as part of Extended Service Program, and between then and 1999, all series vehicles received the Caterpillar 3116 Diesel engine and had their manual transmissions replaced with automatic ones, as well as receiving numerous other improvements. No new A3 standard vehicles were produced, all vehicles being upgraded from previous configurations. Three serviceable -A2 trucks were used to build two -A3 trucks during the rebuild process.
The curb weight of an M35 is between 13,000 and 16,000 pounds empty, depending on configuration (cargo, wrecker, tractor, etc.). Its top speed is 56 mph (90 km/h), though maximum cruising speed is approximately 48 mph (77 km/h). Fuel economy is 11 MPG highway and 8 MPG city, giving the deuce a 400-500 mile range on its 50 US gallon single fuel tank. On average, most operators experience tank averages of 8-10 mpg for an unladen vehicle.
Brake system is air assisted hydraulic six wheel drum with a driveline parking brake, although gladhands exist on the rear of the vehicle for connection to trailers with full air service and emergency brakes. Braking performance of the truck is similar to other power drum brake vehicles of this size. Each drum was designed with maximum efficiency in mind, and individual drums can dissipate up to 12 kW of braking heat. Due to this brake system and GVWR under 26,001 pounds, the big deuce can be driven without a commercial driver's license in most states. California, however, requires a CDL to operate an M35 on public roads.
The electrical system is 24 volt, using two 12 volt 6TL-series military grade batteries run in series.
Many deuces are equipped with a 10,000 pound PTO driven front winch manufactured by Garwood.
The M35 family was introduced into the US military to replace the GMC CCKW and M135 families cargo trucks still in service at the time. The M35 would not completely replace the M135 family until the middle of the 1960s. However, the M35 would quickly become the dominant truck in its class in the US military, serving with all the services in various capacities.
The M35 series was to be replaced by the Light Medium Tactical Vehicle. However, many US National Guard and US Army Reserve units continued to use them as the new family of vehicles was phased in. The M35 series was used by United States in Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Canadian Forces Land Force Command adopted license built versions of the M35 (and M36 variant) in 1982, built in Canada by Bombardier. As of 2008, the trucks, designated MLVW (Medium Logistics Vehicle, Wheeled) were still in service. Canadian vehicles featured an automatic transmission, six wheels instead of ten (but still with dual rear axles), and an ether-start for winter operations. Canada had been investigating a replacement under the Medium Support Vehicle System Project, but no vehicle had been selected. The MLVW's were initially not deployed with Canadian Forces in Afghanistan because of their lack of armor protection. An armor kit was subsequently developed leading to a limited deployment of the vehicles.
The M34/M35 series of trucks came in wide array of variants and subvariants. As noted engine differences could be noted by the A1, A2, or A3 suffix, but additional suffix letters were also sometimes added. These letters had different meanings depending on what variant to which they were applied.
Under the nomeclature system used by the US Army Ordnance Corps Supply Catalog (known as G-series) the M34/M35/M36 family is designated G742.
As noted the original basic gasoline-powered truck variants were first the M34, and then the M35. A long wheel-base variant, designated the M36, was also developed (featuring a 17-foot cargo bed and two fold down sections on the passenger side of the bed). The M35A2C featured a straight drop-side cargo bed. The M44 and M45 were simply the chassis designation for the 2-1/2 ton series, and this cab/chassis would serve as the basis for many more specialized variants.
In the 1980s,Bombardier produced a M35 variant for the Canadian Forces' medium logistic vehicle, wheeled platform. This featured an Allison MT-643 automatic transmission, radial tires, and a Detroit Diesel engine displacing 8.2 Liters.
The M49 fuel tanker and M50 water tanker variants were initially based on the M44 chassis. The M50 had a 1000 gallon water tank, of which later variants had internal baffles to combat weight transfer during motion. In some areas these variations are still used today as a wildland firefighting truck with a portable water supply and fully operational pump.
A number of variants with van bodies, primarily for use as maintenance shop vans, were also created. The basic model was theTruck,Van ,Shop M109 and Truck, Instrument Repair Shop M185. An expandable van variant with hydraulic lift gate was designated M292. Two variants of the M109 were specifically developed as service vehicles for the MGM-18 Lacrosse missile system, the XM411 for the Ground Guidance Electronic Equipment, and the XM412 with special tools and test equipment for the electronic guidance and control system. A medical van variant was designated M132.
Wreckers and Tractors
An austin-western crane was added to the M108 crane trucks, and M60 wrecker trucks. The M60 truck included a drag winch for wrecker operations. Two tractor variants for towing semi-trailers were developed, the M48 and M275. The M48 featured a full-length wheelbase (identical to the M35 cargo), while the M275 featured a shorter wheelbase for reduced weight and greater maneuverability. However, due to the smaller size and lower power of the 2-1/2 ton trucks, most heavier loads were handled by their respective 5-ton counterparts. As a result few were produced.
Construction & Combat Engineering Equipment
A number of specialized construction variants were developed. The M47 and M59 dump trucks were developed, based on the M57 and M58 chassis truck respectively. An improved dump truck based on the M45 chassis and designated the M342 was designed to replace both the M47 and the M59, as well as the M135-based M215. This truck was later built with the multifuel engine and designated as the M342A2.
The M108, based on the M44 chassis, carried a crane. The M756A2 was a specialized pipeline repair vehicle, the V17A/MTQ was designed for telephone line repair. A later multifueled powered M763 was developed but no numbers exist to confirm production. The V18A/MTQ was a specialized earth-boring and pole-setting variant powered by the OA-331 gasoline engine. It was later replaced with the M764 which had some engineering refinements as well as the multifuel engine for power.
The versatility of the pattern was perhaps shown best in its usage as an armored "gun truck" for patrol duties and convoy escort.
The first conversions of the pattern were performed by the US military in Vietnam. US Army Artillery Battalions (Automatic Weapons, Self-Propelled) were often assigned Artillery Batteries (.50 Caliber), units equipped with M35 trucks and M55 machine gun systems mounting four M2 Browning machine guns. Units were also authorized a single M60 machine gun and M79 grenade launcher.While the M35 was designed to act as the prime mover for the M55 system, which included a towed trailer, the M45 mount was often removed or the wheels removed from the trailer, and the system mounted on the bed of the truck. The M55 system was also mounted on the M54 truck.
More simplified armoring projects were conducted as well, adding armored walls of various thicknesses to standard cargo variants. A smaller bed-mounted multi-angle "box" was also tried. US Army gun trucks used a wide variety of weapons including the M2 Browning machine gun, M60 machine gun, and even the M134 Minigun.
At the end of the Vietnam War most of these vehicles were returned to their standard configuration, except for a single original example shipped to the US Army Transportation Museum at Fort Eustis, Virginia in 1971.
The concept lived on well after the Vietnam War. El Salvador converted a number of M35 type vehicles into armored trucks in the 1980s, after successful conversions of Magirus Deutz trucks. These vehicles were nicknamed "Mazingers" in reference to the Japanese cartoon Mazinger Z.
The Philippine Marine Corps also began converting M35 type trucks to an armored configuration by 2004. The first vehicle, dubbed "Talisman," utilized armor fabricated from derelict LVTP5 amphibious personnel carriers. Later gun trucks were built using more standard components and bear some resemblance to US military vehicles of the Vietnam era. The Philippine Marine Corps had also begun the creation of an anti-aircraft element by 2006, utilizing M35 based vehicles. Two types of vehicles have been seen so far. One utilizes the Mk 56 Mod 0 mount from the Patrol Boat, River, with two M2 Browning machine guns, while the other features another former naval mount with a single Oerlikon 20mm cannon.
Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M35_2-1/2_ton_cargo_truck
Stock NDT 900X20 (40.5 X 20)
Stock 14.5R 20 (43.5 X 20)
Largest Tire on stock wheels 1100X20 (43 X 20) or 12.50R20 (40 X 20)
Largest tire with out lift 15.5 G20 or 395 85R 20 (47 X 10 X 20)... Requires 10-11 inch "singled" wheels.
1400R20 (49.5 X 20) requires a 4" inch lift and the rear axles need to be moved apart or one removed
1600R20 (52 X 20) requires a 8" lift and the rear axles need to be moved apart or one removed
OA 331 gasser
LD-465-1C non turbo, 126hp
LDT-465-1C turbo, 134hp
LDT-465-1D minor updates, turbo, 134hp
All LD/LDT/LDS engines are multifuel
Two turbos were used on the LDT engines. C turbo, narrow exhaust side housing, and whistler. D turbo, fat exhaust side housing, non-whistler. 1C or 1D refers to engine only, not turbo installed.
COOLANT HOSE SIZE: intake to head bypass hoses are 1 5/8 inch NOT 1 3/4. Hoses (upper radiator, water pump and oil cooler) 2 inch.
Lower Radiator hose: Best fit is a Military hose (newstar, Military surplus, NOS) The Napa corssed hoses will fit with trimming and some work.
LO 9-2320-209-12-1 Lube order for the m35 series
LO 9-2320-386-12 M35 Lubrication Order
TB 9-4910-492-30Hoist unit mount in m34 or m35
TB 43-0209 Military camouflage painting
TM 9-2320-209-10-1 M35reference data.
TM 9-2320-209-10-1-HR List issue items m44a1 and m44a2
TM 9-2320-209-10-2 M35 preventive maintenance checks and services
Tm 9-2320-209-10-3 M35 general troubleshooting
TM 9-2320-209-10-4 M35 operator's maintenance program
TM 9-2320-209-20-2-1 M35 trouble shooting volume 2 section 1
Tm 9-2320-209-20-2-2 M35 trouble shooting volume 2 section 2
TM 9-2320-209-20-3-1 Organizational level maintenance, volume 1 section 1 (chapters 1 - 12)
Tm 9-2320-209-20-3-2 Organizational level maintenance, volume 1 section 2(chapters 13 - 17)
Tm 9-2320-209-20-3-3 Organizational level maintenance, volume 1 section 3 (chapter 18
Tm 9-2320-209-20-3-4 Organizational level maintenance, volume 1 section 4 (chapters 19 - 23)
Tm 9-2320-209-20p Organizational level maintenance parts / tools
TM 9-2520-246-34 M35 direct / general support maintenance for transmissions
TM 9-2520-246-34-1 Maintenance direct and general support transmissions
Tm 9-2520-246-34p M-35 direct / general support maintenance parts, tools for transmissions
Tm 9-2815-204-34pM-35 Depot / Direct / General Support Maintenance Parts Tools of Engine
Manufactured by:REO, Studebaker, Utica-Bend, Kaiser-Jeep, White, Jeep-General product Division and A.M. General
Transmission:Spicer 3053A Multifuel Spicer 3052 Gasser.
Transfer Case:Timken T136-21 Sprag Type; Timken T136-27 Air shift
Axles:Rockwell FC 240 HXI front; Rockwell CF 240 HX3 rear
Brakes:air assisted hydraulic
Heating & Coolingptional hot water heat; optional fuel heat
Length:278 1/4" w/w 264 1/4" wo/w
Height:112"; 81" with windshield down
Weight (curb):13,530 w/w 13,030 wo/w
Weight Capacity (in bed):10,000 Highway; 5,000 Cross Country
Fuel/Water separator... CAT 73-9763.
Transmission External Oil Filter...NAPA Gold 1268 or Fram PH 3519A.
Engine Oil Filter...CAT 1R-0739, NAPA 1971 or Fram PH 49A.
For engine oil I used, Shell Rotella T, 15-W-40.
For the Allison Automatic transmission, I used NAPA Premium Perf. ATF, for vehicles requiring DEXRON III.
For all the grease fittings, I used Lucas, Red "N" Tacky, #2 Grease.
Normal Idle speed is 750-850 RPM.
Normal Operating Temp for the Cat 3116 is 160-230 Degree's F.
Normal Oil Pressure is 35-70 PSI.
Check the dip stick level approximately one minute AFTER shutting down the engine.
Normal Operating Temp for the Allison Trans. is 160-200 Degree's F.
Low Air pressure indicator light below 60 PSI.
Normal Air Pressure is 90-120 PSI (for the brakes)
CTIS should keep the big Michlein's at 45 PSI for the highway.
Check the coolant through the sight tube on the surge tank. There is a drain on the right side of the radiator. Good idea to flush it and put some fresh fluid in.
The transmission fluid access is under the passengers feet. Pull up the thick pad, you will see it.
If the transmission oil temperature is below 160 Degree's F, the oil level should be below the "COLD RUN" level marks on the dip stick
If the transmission oil temperature is 160-200 Degree's F, the oil level should be between the "HOT RUN" level marks on the dip stick. (Don't let any contamination drop into the filler !)
I bought an "Operation and Maintenance Manual" from Caterpillar.
It says the 3116 shallow sump refills at approximately 21 quarts.
This section is dedicated to listing parts information for the M35. Please list as much information as possible ie: NSN, Description, Category, Vendor, Vendor Part #, Vendor info, any notes.
Description: Impeller, Fan, Axial for LDT-465C
Tech Manual Reference: 9-2320-361-34P Fig.43, Item # 1 Part # 11641747
Replacement: Nylon, Impeller, Fan, Axial
Made by American Cooling Systems Part# 449150-20
Vendor: American Cooling Systems, LLC (http://americancooling.com/)
Notes: There is a listing of distributors in their catalog.
These are not the only options - some people use different filters.
Baldwin is the choice of the Military.
Primary fuel filter under the alternator - NAPA 3511 or Wix 33511
Secondary fuel filter - NAPA 3512 or Wix 33512 - 2 required
O-ring Gasket for the Primary Fuel Filter - NAPA 5131
O-ring Gasket for the Secondary Fuel Filter - NAPA 5070
NAPA 1133 or Wix 51133 - 2 required
O-Ring Gasket for the Oil Filters - NAPA 5119